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  Salmonella

 

Salmonella is an extremely diversified genus, infecting a range of hosts, and comprised of two species:  enterica and  bongori. This group is made up of 2579 serovars, making it versatile and fascinating for researchers drawing their attention towards different properties of this microorganism. Salmonella related diseases are a major problem in developed and developing countries resulting in economic losses, as well as problems of zoonoses and food borne illness. Moreover, the emergence of an ever increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance in salmonella makes it prudent to unveil different mechanisms involved. This book is the outcome of a collaboration between various researchers from all over the world. The recent advancements in the field of salmonella research are compiled and presented.

 

Nanotechnology Tools for Efficient Antibacterial Delivery to Salmonella.  In: Yashwant Kumar, Editor.  Salmonella - A Diversified Superbug.  Jan 2012; Chapter 8.

Ali Nokhodchi, Taravat Ghafourian, Ghobad Mohammadi

InTech Publishers.  Jan 2012

http://www.intechopen.com/books/salmonella-a-diversified-superbug

Introduction
In recent years, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks have been recorded around the world, and probably there should be more cases that were not detected or reported (1). Many different types of Salmonella exist, some of which cause illness in both animals and people, and some types cause illness in animals but not in people. The various forms of Salmonella that can infect people are referred to as serotypes, which are very closely related microorganisms that share certain structural features. Some serotypes are only present in certain parts of the world (1). Salmonella spp are gram negative anaerobic and intracellular bacteria. Salmonellosis, mainly due to Salmonella typhimurium, occurs more frequently in HIV-infected patients than in healthy individuals and the frequency of bacteraemia is much higher in such patients (2).  Despite the discovery of new antibiotics, treatment of intracellular infections often fails to eradicate the pathogens completely. One major reason is that many antimicrobials are difficult to transport through cell membranes and have low activity inside the cells, thereby imposing negligible inhibitory or bactericidal effects on the intracellular bacteria (3). In addition, antimicrobial toxicity to healthy tissues poses a significant limitation to their use (3). Therefore, the delivery of the drug to the bacterial cells is currently a big challenge to the clinicians. This is on top of the problems posed by the emerging Multi-Drug Resistant species. Moreover, the reduced membrane permeability of microorganisms has been cited asa key mechanism of resistance to antibiotics (4).

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